US Data Privacy Laws: The Full 2023 Rundown

James Grieco
James Grieco
Nov 7, 2023
min read
US Data Privacy Laws: The Full 2023 Rundown

The State of U.S. Data Privacy Laws

Many perceive data privacy in the United States as lacking, since there is no comprehensive national data privacy regulation, but 2023 is changing the overall scene thanks to a massive influx of new U.S. data privacy laws in the country. 

Prior to this year, only five states, California, Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, and Utah, had passed regulation, but so far in 2023 eight other states have joined the fray, bringing the total up to 13 states with comprehensive data privacy regulations.

Aside from California’s amended CCPA, the other 12 states have often gone with business-friendly approaches to data privacy, but the presence of laws to begin with is a strong start, and with the majority of the eight regulations passed this year done so within a few months, there is more momentum than ever for data protection to truly take root in the U.S.

There is significant overlap in some areas between all these laws, which is not a surprise given that Virginia’s VCDPA served as a basis for most of them. However, there are enough differences between each that a one-size-fits-all approach may not work to get a national law done in the near future.

Regardless of the future prospects of the ADPPA or another future federal bill, more than 135 million Americans–over 40% of the country–now have access to data rights and protections, with that number sure to rise over the next 12 months. 

The U.S. data privacy laws that passed and were signed over the past few months will not all go into effect until 2026, but Iowa, Indiana, Tennessee, Montana, Texas, Florida, Delaware, and Oregon have put themselves on the map and given their citizens protections they absolutely deserve in today’s day and age. 

Let’s dive into all eight of these new state regulations, highlighting data rights, compliance thresholds, data protection requirements, and unique aspects of each law.

Iowa Consumer Data Protection Act

Enforcement Date: January 1, 2025

Iowa passed its regulation, the Iowa Consumer Data Protection Act (ICDPA) quickly and with broad–nearly unanimous–support from the state’s legislature. It was the first state to pass data privacy regulation in 2023 and just the second Republican-led state to (after Utah) to do so, giving the legislature a strong bipartisan win.

Iowa used Virginia’s VCDPA as a basis for much of its bill, so there is immense overlap between the two, including the ICDPA’s fines of $7500 per violation and its applicability threshold for businesses processing:

  • the personal data of +100,000 consumers in a calendar year, or
  • the personal data of +25,000 consumers, while deriving over 50 percent of gross revenue from the sale of that data.

Despite that, the actual contents of the ICDPA leave much to be desired. Consumer data rights only include:  

  • Access
  • Delete
  • Portability
  • Opt-out of the sale of personal data 

This means that Iowans will lack major data rights like the right to correct data, the right to revoke consent, and the right of private action. ICDPA also relies almost entirely on opt-outs, with even the processing of sensitive data as an opt-out rather than opt-in for individuals. 

The bill also does not grant the right to opt out of profiling or the use of personal data for targeted advertising, two major issues that have routinely been the focus of recent GDPR fines in the EU. 

The age of a child for opt-in purposes is 13, the same as the federal Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Only children under 13 have opt-in rights under the ICDPA. 

Iowa also grants businesses the longest timeline for handling data subject requests of any comprehensive state-level bill in America, as they have 90 days to respond to DSRs rather than the 45-day limit in the CCPA and VCDPA. 

This is on top of a 90-day cure period that will not expire, meaning businesses have a long runway for fixing any alleged violations.


  • Government
  • Nonprofit business
  • Higher education
  • Entities subject to GLBA
  • Entities subject to HIPAA

Things to note

  • Permanent 90-day (!) cure period
  • Iowa’s bill is the only comprehensive bill to pass this year that does not require businesses to conduct impact assessments, which is why the ICDPA has arguably the lowest overall bar for compliance and is the weakest of all the U.S. data privacy laws

Indiana Data Privacy Law

Enforcement Date: January 1, 2026 

Indiana’s comprehensive data privacy regulation has the latest enforcement date of the eight bills passed in 2023, with the state granting businesses a grace period of more than two and a half years from the time the regulation passed. 

Grace period aside, Indiana follows the VCDPA closer than Iowa’s law does, granting its residents these data rights:

  • Access
  • Delete
  • Portability
  • Correct
  • Opt-out of the sale of personal data AND the use of data for targeted advertising and profiling
  • Opt-in before a data controller can process sensitive data

The only major data right missing is the right of private action, which means individuals are not allowed to sue organizations over data privacy violations. However, this data right is absent from nearly every American regulation sans California’s CCPA, so its exclusion here is not surprising.

In addition to consumer-friendly benefits like requiring businesses to receive opt-ins before processing sensitive data, Indiana requires impact assessments and calls for “adequate” data security measures (likely measured against typical standards like the National Institute of Standards & Technology’s (NIST) framework, as well as data protection principles like data minimization and consent to lie at the heart of a business’s privacy program. 

It’s applicability threshold is the same as Virginia’s & Iowa’s:

  • control or process personal data of at least 100,000 consumers OR
  • control or process the data of 25,000 consumers while also making over 50% of gross revenue from the sale of personal data. 

…although Indiana’s bill has more exemptions than Iowa’s ICDPA, with any entity in one of these categories or subject to one of these laws exempt from the regulation (this exemption list is standard for most state-level privacy laws in the U.S.)**:

  • Government entities
  • Higher education
  • Nonprofits
  • Public utilities 
  • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) 
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
  • Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) 
  • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)
  • Data covered by the Health Care Quality Improvement Act
  • Data covered by the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act
  • Data covered by the Fair Credit Reporting Act
  • Data covered by the Driver's Privacy Protection Act
  • Data covered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
  • Data covered by the Farm Credit Act

Things to note

  • Perpetual 30-day cure period (similar to Virginia & Utah, but differing from Colorado & Connecticut, both of which have a sunset cure period for violations that will expire before Indiana’s bill even takes effect in 2026
  • Indiana’s DSR handling timeline matches California’s, with 45 days to respond and address consumer requests
  • Standard state-level enforcement outline: $7500 fine per violation, with Attorney General (AG)-controlled enforcement
  • Unlike Iowa, this bill has enough there to be a deterrent to bad data privacy practices, even if enforcement will likely be lacking

Tennessee Information Protection Act

Enforcement Date: July 1, 2025 

Tennessee passed the Tennessee Information Protection Act (TIPA) in early May, concluding an ultra fast three-month trip through the state legislature. Along with sharing many similarities with the VCDPA, Tennessee’s bill also borrowed heavily from Connecticut’s CTDPA and Utah’s UCPA. 

TIPA’s applicability threshold takes Utah’s approach, as companies only need to comply if they:

  • Earn more than $25 mil in gross annual revenue


  • control or process personal information of +175,000 Tennessee consumers
  • control or process personal information of +25,000 Tennessee consumers while making +50% of revenue from the sale of that data.

Like most of these state laws, Tennessee only covers people acting in “a personal context,” which means employees and business-to-business data are not covered by the law. Currently the only state law that extends full rights to employees is California’s CCPA.

Tennessee follows the course Connecticut and Colorado set for opt-ins as well, with companies needing to secure opt-ins before processing any sensitive data or data from a known child under the age of 13 (the clause about children mirroring Iowa’s). Otherwise, TIPA works on opt-outs, although it does grant consumers the ability to opt-out of data processing for profiling and targeted advertising. 

The full list of data rights Tennesseans is:

  • Confirm data processing
  • Access
  • Delete
  • Portability
  • Correct
  • Opt-out of the sale of personal data AND the use of data for targeted advertising and profiling
  • Opt-in before a data controller can process sensitive data

TIPA has a long list of exemptions, exempting all the categories listed above in Indiana’s law with one change: public utility companies are not exempt, but licensed insurance companies are. TIPA is currently the only bill that exempts insurance companies, which is something that often pops up in state bills as key industries within a state secure additional guarantees from data privacy regulations.

The other unique aspect of TIPA is a section outlining a safe harbor for companies that “reasonably conform” to the NIST Cybersecurity Framework. While NIST’s framework is just a guideline, it is quite influential, outlining how companies should cover risks in how they Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and Recover data.

What this safe harbor defense actually looks like in practice is anyone’s guess, but in theory it could mean companies that have industry standard cybersecurity practices in place have a defense if they are found to be in violation of TIPA. 

The first time this comes up, the fabric of TIPA will be tested and the country will be watching given how unique this clause is among U.S. data privacy laws.

Things to note

  • TIPA has a permanent 60-day cure period
  • Violations run the standard $7500 per, with the Attorney General enforcing the law
  • Standard 45-day periods to handle DSRs
  • Companies do not need to include pseudonymous data when fulfilling DSRs
  • Impact assessments are required, and companies will need to begin documenting data processing activities by July 1, 2024–one year before the law enters into effect

Montana Consumer Data Privacy Act

Enforcement Date: October 1, 2024

Montana’s law, the Montana Consumer Data Privacy Act (MCDPA), was drafted in late 2022 and passed a week after TIPA in May. Despite coming after Iowa, Indiana, and Tennessee, Montana’s law enters into force before any of them. 

The MCDPA’s applicability thresholds are also lower than any state to pass data privacy regulation in 2023 and do not specify a revenue threshold, with companies needing to comply if they:

  1. Control or process personal information of +50,000 Montana consumers 


  1. Earn +25% of gross revenue from the sale of personal data and control and/or process the personal data of +25,000 Montanans

The 50,000 mark is half what most states have on the books, which is logical given Montana’s small population. Like the other laws in 2023, employees are not covered by MCDPA.

Montana’s regulation gives Montanas an extensive set of consumer data rights, including:

  • Confirm data processing
  • Access
  • Delete
  • Portability
  • Correct
  • Revoke consent
  • Opt-out of the sale of personal data AND the use of data for targeted advertising and profiling
  • Opt-in before a data controller can process sensitive data

Montana becomes just the second state after Connecticut to give citizens the right to revoke consent within the original regulation (Colorado amended theirs to include the right to revoke consent). 

Likewise, the MCDPA allows people to request that data controllers delete all personal data the controller has on them, rather than just personal data that the controller collected directly from the consumer, which is not the standard for data subject rights. The bill also does not require Montanans prove their identity to opt-out of targeted advertising and the selling of their personal data, making opt-outs simpler and faster.

Despite operating on an opt-out principle for data processing, sensitive data will require opt-in consent, which is becoming the norm for state-level bills.

Sensitive data in the MCDPA includes these categories, with no major variations from how sensitive data is defined in any other 2023 bill:

  • racial/ethnic origin
  • religious beliefs
  • mental or physical health diagnoses
  • sexual orientation
  • citizenship or immigration status
  • genetic or biometric information used to uniquely identify an individual
  • information from a known child (under the age of 13)  
  • precise geolocation data (within a radius of 1,750 feet) 

Things to note

  • DSR time table is 45 days, like most other American regulations
  • Children are defined as under 13 years old, but there are extra protections in place for those under 16, as consent is required from them if data processing is for the sale of data or targeted advertising.
  • The usual list of exemptions apply, although without any state-specific exemptions
  • Data minimization, data security standards, and impact assessments are required
  • 60-day cure period set to expire on April 1, 2026
  • Consumers must be able to opt-out of the sale of personal data for the purpose of targeted advertising by January 1, 2025 (3 months after the law enters into force).

Florida Digital Bill of Rights

Enforcement Date: July 1, 2024

Technically, Florida became the tenth state to pass comprehensive data privacy regulation in June when Governor DeSantis signed the Florida Digital Bill of Rights (FDBR) into law, but the law’s scope is so limited many legal outlets have not spent much time covering it.

The FDBR defines data controllers as an organization with annual global revenue of over $1 billion, almost immediately limiting the law’s applicability threshold to Big Tech and the most high-profile advertising companies (the usual exemptions for health care and financial institutions apply). 

In addition to that revenue threshold, companies meeting one of these requirements must comply with the law:

  • Make 50% of annual revenue from selling online ads,
  • Run an app store or digital distribution platform that has over 250,000 downloadable apps for consumers, 


  • Sell a smart device that comes equipped with a virtual assistant or voice command service

With that picture in place, it becomes clear that Florida is exclusively trying to regulate specific companies like Google, Amazon, and Apple. The bill takes particular aim at smart home devices and social media, as it requires companies to gain clear consent before any device that uses voice or facial recognition, video, audio, or other monitoring capabilities begins operation. 

In regards to social media, the bill bans government entities from signing content moderation agreements with social media platforms, as has occurred previously with Twitter and Meta.

FDBR also takes aim at search engines, specifically Google, requiring it to provide clear insight into how its algorithms and methodology work, including disclosing how factors such as political ideology and partisanship is handled within search results. 

In terms of restrictions and requirements put on data controllers, they must:

  • Practice data minimization, only collecting what is necessary for the stated purposes
  • Implement and maintain adequate data security measures
  • Obtain consumer consent before processing sensitive data, the categories of which the state expanded to now include geolocation and biometric data
  • Follow strict data retention schedules, not exceeding two years after a consumer's last interaction with the controller or beyond the end of a data processing contract
  • Conduct data protection impact assessments

Unlike other state laws, the FDBR applies to any company whose products are used by Florida residents. This is a slight difference in language, as most states specify products and services aimed at state residents or a company located within a state. 

That means Big Tech companies will need to comply with the FDBR by default, which is a feature of the bill, since it will likely only cover a few dozen companies globally.

For Floridians themselves, they will have access to these data rights:

  • Confirm data processing
  • Access 
  • Delete
  • Correct 
  • Portability
  • Opt out of data processing for targeted advertising or automated profiling
  • Opt out of data collection done through voice or facial recognition technology

Things to note

  • Enforcement is handled completely differently in Florida, led not by the AG but by the Florida Department of Legal Affairs. This, in theory, means more resources to prosecute violations, particularly with only an optional cure period provided
  • Violations carry a $50,000 fine per occurrence, with that number reaching $150,000 if the violation involves a child’s data
  • Children are defined as under the age of 18, and have increased protections put in place for “online platforms.” Online platforms are prohibited from processing the personal information of children if the platform’s data processing poses a substantial risk or harm to children’s privacy
  • DSR response timeline is the normal 45 days

Texas Data Privacy & Security Act

Enforcement Date: July 1, 2024

Texas passed the Texas Data Privacy & Security Act (TDPSA) shortly after Florida, becoming the sixth state in 2023 and 11th overall to pass a comprehensive U.S. data privacy law.

Unlike Florida’s FDBR, Texas’s law follows the standards set by other state regulations like the VCDPA more closely, but there are some deviations. The main difference is the TDPSA’s applicability threshold, which requires businesses to meet these three criteria:

  • Conduct business in Texas or offer a product or service consumed by Texas residents
  • Process or engage in the sale of personal data
  • Is not a small business as defined by the U.S. Small Business Administration *(500 employees or fewer, revenue under $30 million)*

This is perhaps the broadest applicability threshold of all the state-level data privacy laws, and takes the exact opposite approach Florida took. The TDPSA looks primed to require many businesses to comply, even if the U.S. Small Business Administration definitions vary in size and revenue thresholds by industry.

The one overlap with Florida’s threshold is the phrasing about a company offering products or services “consumed” by Texans being subject to compliance.

This opens the door for nearly any company operating within the United States and bringing in over $30 million (similar to the $25 million revenue threshold in California’s CCPA) to comply, possibly setting a more national standard for how companies handle data privacy within the country.

Like most of the states to pass regulations in 2023, Texas provides a laundry list of exemptions:

  • State government and administrative organizations
  • Institutions and data subject to the Gramm-Leach-Billey Act (GLBA)
  • Entities, associates, and data covered by HIPAA
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Higher education institutions
  • Electric utility and power generation companies**
  • Data related to the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986
  • Data in compliance with the Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994
  • Data in compliance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974
  • Data in compliance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971

The one unique exemption is for electric utility and power generation companies. This is key for Texas as it is the only state in the country to run on its own power grid, hence why the state is more lenient to those companies.

Texas residents will soon get data rights including the right to access, delete, correct, data portability, and opt-out of targeted advertising and automated profiling. The TDPSA does not include the right of private action or the right to revoke consent. 

Of note regarding the right to access, Texas has a unique clause whereby data controllers must include special clauses noting if they sell a consumer’s sensitive or biometric data. 

Data subject requests will operate on the typical 45-day timeline and companies must conduct data protection assessments that cover:

  • Targeted advertising
  • Selling or sharing personal data
  • Automated profiling and decision making
  • Processing sensitive personal information 
  • Activities that present a “heightened risk of harm to the consumer”

Things to note

  • Processing sensitive information requires a freely given opt-in
  • The law calls out dark patterns as defined by the FTC in how consent notices must be written
  • Organizations must acknowledge and honor universal opt-out systems by January 1, 2025
  • 30-day indefinite cure period, although businesses must include evidence of compliance and correction of alleged violations when given written notices by the AG instead of simply responding that they have corrected the violation

Oregon Consumer Privacy Act

Enforcement Date: July 1, 2024

Oregon passed the Oregon Consumer Privacy Act (OCPA) in July, the second most recent state to pass a data privacy law in the U.S. The OCPA is not radically different from the bulk of state-level data privacy regulations currently out there, a mild surprise given how progressive a state Oregon is, but the law has its own special facets.

Firstly, the applicability threshold does not have a revenue requirement, applying to any business within the state or producing services targeted at state residents that:

  • controls or processes personal data of +100,000 Oregon residents, 


  • controls or processes personal data of +25,000 Oregon residents and earns more than 25 percent of gross revenue from the sale of personal data.

As for exemptions, the usual ones are present here (government entities, higher education, HIPAA or GLBA-covered entities, health records, research data, etc.), but there is one major change. 

Non-profits within Oregon are NOT exempt from the OCPA, meaning they too must comply. Oregon is only the second state after Colorado to require compliance from most non-profit organizations. Non-profits will have an extra year, until July 1, 2025, to comply.

Oregonians will gain a robust set of data rights, similar to Montanans’, including the right to:

  • Confirm data processing
  • Access
  • Delete
  • Correct
  • Delete
  • Portability
  • Revoke consent
  • Opt-out of the processing of data for targeted advertising and automated profiling

The DSR handling timeline for businesses in compliance with OCPA is 45 days, but one interesting wrinkle is that consumers also have the right to appeal a data controller’s refusal to handle a data subject request. 

As just the fourth state to include the right to revoke consent and one of the very few to include the right to appeal, Oregon consumers may enjoy the strongest set of data rights in the country.

Compliance requirements for businesses cover the usual points such as data minimization, adequate data security standards, guardrails to stop discrimination against individuals exercising their data rights, transparent consent and privacy notices, and the need to carry out impact assessments. 

The state goes further with requirements however, as data controllers and processors must sign and carry out agreements on how to process data (not required by every state), and controllers must disclose to consumers how third parties might process the data shared with them.

Things to note

  • The processing of sensitive data requires opt-in, and processing any data of children under 13 also requires opt-in
  • Additional protections for children aged 13-15, as data controllers must get explicit consent before processing data for targeted advertising, selling personal data, or profiling.
  • Extensive third party disclosures go beyond the mere listing of data categories potentially shared with third parties most regulations require
  • $7500 fine per violation, with AG-only enforcement 
  • 30-day cure period that ends January 1, 2026

Delaware Personal Data Privacy Act

Enforcement Date: January 1, 2025

Delaware passed the Delaware Personal Data Privacy Act (DPDPA) in September, becoming the eighth state in 2023 to pass a comprehensive data privacy law and the lucky 13th state overall. 

Delaware’s approach to an applicability threshold eschews a revenue threshold, with businesses either within the state or producing goods and services targeted at Delaware residents needing to comply if during a calendar year they:

  • control or process personal data of +35,000 Delaware residents


  • control or process personal data of +10,000 Delaware residents while earning more than 20 percent of gross revenue from the sale of personal data.

These numbers are far below the normal 100,000 figure, as Delaware–like Montana–has quite a small population. The 20% of revenue earned from the sale of data is below the normal 25% figure, another fact to note.

The law’s exemptions cover government entities, HIPAA-related data, GLBA-covered entities, health records, research data, etc. but most non-profits and higher education institutions are NOT exempt. 

The two important differences here are the fact that the state exempts only HIPAA-related data and not a broader HIPAA-related entity exemption that most states have, and the fact that Delaware is the first state to require higher education institutions to comply with its comprehensive data privacy regulation. 

Delaware consumers will have these data rights:

  • Confirm data processing
  • Access
  • Correct
  • Delete
  • Portability
  • To see which third parties a controller has shared the specific consumer’s data with (a right only also seen in Oregon’s regulation)
  • Opt-out of the processing of data for targeted advertising and automated profiling

Also like Oregon, Delaware also offers the right to appeal a controller’s refusal to take action on a data subject request, but the state lacks the right to revoke consent (as well as the right of private action, meaning California is still the only state to grant citizens that right). 

Along with normal requirements placed on data controllers like data minimization, contracts between data controllers and processors, data security standards, etc. Delaware's DPDPA of course requires impact assessments.

However, any company processing the data of over 100,000 consumers within Delaware (population 1.01 million) must conduct and document data protection impact assessments on “a regular basis.”

For larger companies, this likely means stricter privacy program controls than are currently in place, which will hopefully spur many in the business world to invest more heavily in data privacy. 

Delaware, as the most recent state to pass regulation, has extended the definitions of various sections within the DPDPA. Most notably, it expands the right to opt-out of profiling to also cover “demographic characteristics” and becomes the first state to include “status as transgender or nonbinary” as part of sensitive information. 

However since the law does not cover business-to-business or employee information (like all the other 2023 bills), people will still see demographic questions when applying for jobs.

Delaware also has some of the most stringent restrictions on processing children’s data. Children are defined as under 13 years of age and processing any data from a child requires explicit opt-in and parental consent, but the DPDPA also partially covers kids under 18 years old, as data controllers must not sell or process their personal data for targeted advertising without consumer opt-in.

Things to note

  • DPDPA enforcement looks different from most states’ data privacy enforcement, as fines reach $10,000 per violation and enforcement is carried out not only by the AG, but by the entire Delaware Department of Justice.
  • 60-day cure period until January 1, 2026, upon which the cure period becomes optional to provide
  • Controllers will need to recognize universal opt-out mechanisms starting January 1, 2026.

What's Next?

As you can see, 2023 has been an incredibly busy year for American data privacy and U.S. data privacy laws. 

To go from five to 13 states with comprehensive laws on the books is a major win for data privacy and data rights. As most of these states were able to pass their respective regulations within a single legislative session, there is real momentum and urgency behind the issue now.

In 2024, several more states seem primed to pass comprehensive data privacy laws, with New Hampshire looking to be next in line at the beginning of the 2024 legislative session. 

Keep your eyes here as we will update the guide with each new state-level U.S. data privacy law, making it a perfect in-depth companion to IAPP’s legislation tracker.

As a reminder, this is the timeline for these eight new laws to enter into effect:

  • July 1, 2024 – Oregon
  • July 1, 2024 – Florida
  • July 1, 2024 – Texas
  • October 1, 2024 – Montana
  • January 1, 2025 – Iowa
  • January 1, 2025 – Delaware
  • July 1, 2025 – Tennessee
  • January 1, 2026 – Indiana

If your company needs to build on its privacy program to handle the increased volume of data subject requests, data security requirements, and impact assessments, now is the time to invest in the right data mapping and data privacy software.

Schedule a personalized demo here to see how MineOS is innovating the sphere and automating compliance burdens.